October 08, 2019 11 min read

When we set out to design a brand new pre-workout we took into account all of the things most people want, like sustained energy, no crash, and of course delicious flavors.

But that's not all! In fact, we took it a step further and added some incredible brain-enhancing nootropics too. 

What follows is a detailed breakdown of all the ingredients and benefits from this incredible addition to our lineup of products.

What is PRE & who is it for?

PRE is a functional pre-workout that gives you a combination of intense, laser-like focus and reduces the feelings of lethargy and fatigue. PRE provides powerful antioxidants and helps limit free radical production after intense workouts. 

Unlike other pre-workouts, PRE provides synergistic effects from the combination of powerful ingredients backed by evidence-based research. 

PRE is designed for men and women in search of an intermediate stimulant based pre-workout, one scoop provides sustainable energy, laser focus, and workout crushing endurance. Experienced users can add a second scoop to get maximum potency for intense results.

Benefits of PRE

  • Improved athletic performance
  • Enhance energy metabolism and cell health
  • improve alertness, attention, and focus
  • improve memory and performance in stressful situations
  • Reduces feelings of lethargy
  • Reduces lactic acid accumulation in your muscles during exercise
  • Reduces inflammation and oxidative stress
  • Prevents free radical damage to your cells

Here are the key ingredients of PRE:

Vitamin B3(as niacinamide): Niacinamide is one form of vitamin B3 (niacin) that plays an important role in energy metabolism and cell health. Niacinamide is found primarily in animal-based products and is the preferred form of vitamin B3 for treating pellagra. 

Niacinamide may benefit those with certain skin conditions and reduce the risk of melanoma in high-risk individuals. It may also be useful for people with chronic kidney disease and, to a lesser extent, type 1 diabetes.

References:

  • Int J Tryptophan Res. 2017; 10:
  • Int J Dermatol 2004 Jan: 43(1):1-5

Vitamin B6 (as pyridoxine HCl): Vitamin B6, also known as pyridoxine, is a water-soluble vitamin that your body needs for several functions. It’s significant to protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism and the creation of red blood cells and neurotransmitters. 

Your body cannot produce vitamin B6, so you must obtain it from foods or supplements. Consuming adequate amounts of vitamin B6 is important for optimal health and may even prevent and treat chronic diseases. 

Here are 9 health benefits of vitamin B6, backed by science:

  1. May improve mood and reduce symptoms of depression
  2. May promote brain health and reduce Alzheimer’s risk
  3. May prevent and treat anemia by aiding hemoglobin production
  4. May be useful in treating symptoms of PMS
  5. May help treat nausea during pregnancy
  6. May prevent clogged arteries and reduce heart disease risk
  7. May help prevent cancer
  8. May promote eye health and prevent eye diseases
  9. May treat inflammation associated with Rheumatoid arthritis

References:

  • National Institutes of Health: Office of Dietary Supplements
  • Molecules. 2010 Jan 20;15(1):442-59
  • Psychother Psychosom 2004 Nov-Dec;73(6): 340-3

Vitamin B12(as methylcobalamin): Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is an essential vitamin that your body needs but cannot produce. It’s found naturally in animal products but also added to certain foods and available as an oral supplement or injection. 

Vitamin B12 has many roles in your body. It supports the normal function of your nerve cells and is needed for red blood cell formation and DNA synthesis. Vitamin B12 may benefit your body in impressive ways, such as by boosting your energy, improving your memory and helping prevent heart disease.

Here are 9 health benefits of vitamin B12, all based on science:

  1. Helps with red blood cell formation and Anemia prevention
  2. May prevent major birth defects
  3. May support bone health and prevent osteoporosis
  4. May reduce your risk of macular degeneration
  5. May improve mood and symptoms of depression
  6. May benefit your brain by preventing the loss of neurons
  7. May give you an energy boost
  8. May improve hearth health by decreasing homocysteine
  9. Supports healthy hair, skin and nails

References:

  • Food Nutr Bull. 2008 June; 29(2 Suppl): S101-11; discussion S112-5
  • Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009 Sep;280(3):381-7
  • Arch Intern Med. 2009 Feb 23; 169(4): 335–341.

Vitamin B9(as Folic Acid): Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate, a water-soluble vitamin also known as vitamin B9. It does not occur naturally in food but is frequently added to supplements and refined grain products, such as bread and cereals. Since folic acid is different from natural folate, it must be converted into an active form before your body can use it. Adequate vitamin B9 levels have been linked to various health benefits, including:

  • Prevention of neural tube defects
  • Cancer prevention
  • Reduced homocysteine levels

References:

  • J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2015 Jun;37(6):534-52.
  • Br J Cancer. 2014 Apr 29;110(9):2327-38
  • Nutr J. 2015; 14: 6.

Sodium(as Chloride): Sodium chloride (NaCl), also known as salt, is an essential compound our body uses to:

  • Absorb and transport nutrients
  • Maintain blood pressure
  • Maintain the right balance of fluid
  • Transmit nerve signals
  • Contract and relax muscles
  • Nutrient absorption and transportation
  • Maintaining resting energy
  • Maintaining blood pressure and hydration

L-Citrulline: L-Citrulline is an amino acid. It is turned into L-arginine in the kidneys after supplementation, which means L-citrulline supplementation is a more effective method of increasing L-arginine levels in the body than L-arginine supplementation. 

Taking L-Citrulline increases plasma levels of ornithine and arginine and improves the ammonia recycling process and nitric oxide metabolism. Consequently, it is used in areas where nitric oxide is relevant, namely erectile dysfunction caused by high blood pressure, athletic performance, and cardiovascular health.

There are very few foods that have notable amounts of citrulline. Benefits to your health from L-Citrulline include:

  • Help your blood vessels widen
  • May reduce blood pressure
  • Can increase rise in growth hormone (GH) after exercise

References:

  • Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Sep;110(2):341-51
  • Cardiol J. 2010;17(6):612-8
  • Immunol Endocr Metab Agents Med Chem. 2013 Sep;13(3):214-220.

Beta-Alanine: Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid. Unlike most amino acids, it is not used by your body to synthesize proteins. Instead, together with histidine, it produces carnosine. Carnosine is then stored in your skeletal muscles.

Carnosine reduces lactic acid accumulation in your muscles during exercise, which leads to improved athletic performance. In your muscles, histidine levels are normally high and beta-alanine levels low, which limits the production of carnosine. 

Supplementing with beta-alanine has been shown to elevate carnosine levels in muscles by 80%.

This is how carnosine acts during exercise:

  • Glucose is broken down:Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose, which is the main source of fuel during high-intensity exercise.
  • Lactate is produced: As you exercise, your muscles break glucose down into lactic acid. This is converted into lactate, which produces hydrogen ions (H+).
  • Muscles become more acidic:The hydrogen ions reduce the pH level in your muscles, making them more acidic.
  • Fatigue sets in:Muscle acidity blocks glucose breakdown and reduces your muscles' ability to contract. This causes fatigue.
  • Carnosine buffer:Carnosine serves as a buffer against the acid, reducing the acidity in muscles during high-intensity exercise.

Since beta-alanine supplements increase carnosine levels, they help your muscles reduce their acid levels during exercise. This lessens overall fatigue.

References:

  • J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007 Nov;103(5):1736-43
  • Amino Acids. 2012 Jul; 43(1): 25–37.

L-Tyrosine: Tyrosine is an amino acid that is naturally produced in the body from another amino acid called phenylalanine.

Tyrosine is a popular dietary supplement used to improve alertness, attention, and focus. It produces important brain chemicals that help nerve cells communicate and may even regulate mood. 

It is also found in chicken, turkey, fish, dairy products and most other high-protein foods.

Tyrosine helps make several important substances, including:

  • Dopamine: Dopamine regulates your reward and pleasure centers. This important brain chemical is also important for memory and motor skills.
  • Adrenaline and noradrenaline: These hormones are responsible for the fight-or-flight response to stressful situations. They prepare the body to “fight” or “flee” from a perceived attack or harm.
  • Thyroid hormones: Thyroid hormones are produced by the thyroid gland and primarily responsible for regulating metabolism.
  • Melanin: This pigment gives your skin, hair and eyes their color. Dark-skinned people have more melanin in their skin than light-skinned people.

Supplementing with tyrosine is thought to increase levels of the neurotransmitter’s dopamine, adrenaline, and norepinephrine. 

By increasing these neurotransmitters, it may help improve memory and performance in stressful situations. Studies show that tyrosine can help maintain your mental capacity when taken before a stressful activity.

References:

  • J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2007 May; 32(3): 224
  • J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6 Suppl 1):1539S-1547S
  • Physiol Rev. 2014 Apr; 94(2): 355–382.
  • Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2012 Jan;25(1):14-27

Kre-Alkalyn: This a buffered form of creatine that is touted to remain more stable in the stomach, is not degraded to creatinine and thereby has greater bioavailability. This is accomplished by adding alkaline powder (e.g. soda ash, magnesium glycerol phosphate, bicarbonate) to creatine in order to adjust the pH to a range between 7-14

References:

  • J of Int Soc of Sports Nutrition 2012:43 

Beet Root Extract (Beta Vulgaris): Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) is a root vegetable also known as red beet, table beet, garden beet, or just beet. Packed with essential nutrients, beetroots are a great source of fiber, folate (vitamin B9), manganese, potassium, iron, and vitamin C. Beetroots and beetroot juice have been associated with numerous health benefits, including improved blood flow, lower blood pressure, and increased exercise performance. Many of these benefits are due to their high content of inorganic nitrates. Here are some benefits of beetroot for heart health and exercise performance.

  • Lower blood pressure: Studies show that beetroots or their juice can reduce blood pressure by up to 3–10 mm Hg over a period of a few hours. Such effects are likely due to increased levels of nitric oxide, which causes your blood vessels to relax and dilate.
  • Increased exercise capacity: Numerous studies suggest that nitrates can enhance physical performance, particularly during high-intensity endurance exercise. Dietary nitrates have been shown to reduce oxygen use during physical exercise by affecting the efficiency of mitochondria; the cell organs responsible for producing energy. Beets and their juice are often used for this purpose because of their high inorganic nitrate content. Consumption of beetroots may improve running and cycling performance, increase stamina, boost oxygen use, and lead to better exercise performance overall

References:

  • Hypertension. 2008 Mar;51(3):784-90
  • Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 51, Issue 4, 15 August 2011, Pages 795-804
  • Cell Metab. 2011 Feb 2;13(2):149-59
  • J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Apr;112(4):548-52

Lion’s Mane extract (Hericeum Erinaceus): Lion’s mane mushrooms contain bioactive substances that have beneficial effects on the body, especially the brain, heart, and gut.

Here are 9 health benefits of lion’s mane mushrooms and their extracts:

  1. Could Protect Against Dementia: Lion’s mane mushrooms contain compounds that stimulate the growth of brain cells and protect them from damage caused by Alzheimer’s disease. However, more human research is needed.
  2. Helps Relieve Mild Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety: Studies suggest that lion’s mane mushrooms may help relieve mild symptoms of anxiety and depression, but more human research is needed to better understand the correlation.
  3. May Speed Recovery from Nervous System Injuries: Rat studies have found that lion’s mane extract can speed up recovery time from nervous system injuries, but human research is lacking.
  4. Protects Against Ulcers in the Digestive Tract: Lion’s mane extract has been shown to protect against stomach and intestinal ulcers in rodents, but human research has been conflicting
  5. Reduces Heart Disease Risk: Animal and test-tube studies suggest that lion’s mane extract can reduce the risk of heart disease in several ways, but human studies are needed to confirm these findings.
  6. Helps Manage Diabetes Symptoms: Lion’s mane mushroom can help lower blood sugar and reduce diabetic nerve pain in mice, but more studies are needed to determine whether it might be a good therapeutic option in humans.
  7. May Help Fight Cancer: Animal and test-tube studies show that lion’s mane extract can kill cancer cells and slow the spread of tumors, but human studies are still needed.
  8. Reduces Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: Lion’s mane mushroom contains powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds that may help reduce the impact of chronic illness.
  9. Boosts the Immune System: Lion’s mane mushrooms have been shown to have immune-boosting effects.

References:

  • Biomed Res. 2011 Feb;32(1):67-72
  • Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015 Sep;136:7-12
  • Int J Med Mushrooms. 2015;17(11):1047-54.
  • J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 May 13;183:54-58
  • Mycobiology. 2013 Jun; 41(2): 94–99.
  • Int J Biol Macromol. 2017 Apr;97:228-237
  • J Biomed Biotechnol. 201
  • Mol Med Rep. 2015 May;11(5):3794-9
  • Food Funct. 2017 Mar 22;8(3):1020-1027

Caffeine Anhydrous: Caffeine increases focus and mental stimulation. One of the main mechanisms is by increasing adrenaline. Adrenaline is a powerful stimulatory chemical, but not the only mechanism of caffeine.

The main mechanism that makes caffeine unique is adenosine activity (as a receptor antagonist), which essentially helps increase alertness and reduce feelings of lethargy.

There are some studies to suggest caffeine has a positive effect on memory formation. In addition; Caffeine and coffee have been shown to cause major improvements in performance for endurance athletes. For high-intensity sports like cycling or swimming, caffeine may benefit trained athletes but not untrained individuals. 

For strength or power-based exercises, the research about the effects of caffeine is mostly positive, but still mixed. Caffeine can help release stored fat from fat cells, especially before and at the end of a workout. It can also help you burn more calories. 

References:

  • J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20 Suppl 1:S85-94
  • Br J Sports Med. 1992 Jun; 26(2): 116–120.
  • Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Aug;18(4):412-29
  • Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Jul;42(7):1375-87
  • Am J Physiol. 1992 Jun;262(6 Pt 1):E891-8.

L-Phenylalanine: Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid that is used to produce proteins and signaling molecules. It has been studied as a treatment for several medical conditions but is dangerous for those with a specific genetic disorder phenylketonuria (PKU).  

Your body needs phenylalanine and other amino acids to make proteins. Many important proteins are found in your brain, blood, muscles, internal organs and virtually everywhere else in your body.

 What’s more, phenylalanine is crucial for the production of other molecules, including:

  • Tyrosine:This amino acid is produced directly from phenylalanine. It can be used to make new proteins or converted into other molecules on this list.
  • Epinephrine and norepinephrine:When you encounter stress, these molecules are vital for your body’s “fight or flight” response.
  • Dopamine:This molecule is involved in feelings of pleasure in your brain, as well as forming memories and learning skills

References:

  • J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6 Suppl 1):1539S-1547S
  • Biochemistry. 5th edition
  • Compr Physiol. 2015 Jan;5(1):1-15
  • J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6 Suppl 1):1539S-1547S 

L-Theanine: L-theanine is an amino acid found most commonly in tea leaves and in small amounts in Bay Bolete mushrooms and can be found in both green and black tea. 

Most known for helping people relax, L-theanine has many other potential health benefits, including:

  • Anxiety and stress-relief: A hot cup of tea can help anyone feel more at ease, but research suggests it may be the most beneficial for those dealing with high levels of anxiety. Other scientifically controlled studies found L-theanine reduced stress and anxiety in people who were experiencing stressful situations.
  • Increased focus: Paired with caffeine, L-theanine may help increase focus and attention. Research indicates that combining L-theanine and caffeine helps people focus better during demanding tasks. Participants in the research felt more alert and less tired. This combination acts quickly. Research shows that the effects can be felt in as little as 30 minutes.
  • Better immunity: Some research suggests that L-theanine may improve the function of the body’s immune system. One study published in the journal Beverages found that L-theanine could help decrease the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections. Another study found that L-theanine could help improve inflammation in the intestinal tract.
  • Blood pressure control: L-theanine may be beneficial for those who experience increased blood pressure in stressful situations. Recent research on people who normally experienced higher blood pressure after certain mental tasks. They found that L-theanine helped control this blood pressure increase in those groups. In the same study, the researchers noted that caffeine had a similar but less beneficial effect.

References:

  • Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2008;17 (S1):167-168
  • Nutritional Neuroscience Volume 13, 2010 - Issue 6
  • Beverages 2016, 2(2), 13

Bioperine®(Black Pepper Fruit extract): Bioperine is the active ingredient in black pepper that contributes to that unique spice you taste. Black pepper has long been regarded as beneficial to one’s health throughout history. Now with the help of modern science and clinical research, more Piperine benefits are being discovered. Here are just several of those science-backed health benefits of black pepper extract. 

  • High in antioxidants: Black pepper is rich in a potent antioxidant called piperine, which may help prevent free radical damage to your cells.
  • Anti-inflammatory properties: Chronic inflammation may be an underlying factor in many conditions, such as arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Many laboratory studies suggest that piperine — the main active compound in black pepper — may effectively fight inflammation.
  • May benefit your brain: Piperine has been shown to improve brain function in animal studies. In particular, it has demonstrated potential benefits for symptoms related to degenerative brain conditions like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.
  • Boosts absorption of nutrients: Black pepper may increase the absorption of essential nutrients like calcium and selenium, as well some beneficial plant compounds, such as those found in green tea and turmeric.

References:

  • Redox Rep. 2004;9(2):105-10
  • J Transl Med. 2018 Jan 25;16(1):14
  • J Clin Diagn Res. 2015 Apr;9(4):FF01-4
  • Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(9):875-86