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April 17, 2020 27 min read

It’s estimated that more than 2 billion people around the world suffer from one or more important vitamin or trace mineral deficiencies and they don’t even know it.

Those deficiencies are often the beginning of major health catastrophes because vitamins and minerals are key components to a healthy immune system.

Like oxygen depletion in the death zone of Mount Everest, our food supply is slowly being depleted of key vitamins and minerals too, and it all has to do with the soil our food supply is grown in.

But now there's way to fill the nutritional gaps that occur over time and it's easier to do than ever before.

How ONE + Daily Could Be The Simple Solution To Fill Nutritional Gaps

ONE+ combines 23 vitamins and minerals to create comprehensive wellness support, reducing stressors and providing your body the resources it needs to function at its maximum.

ONE+ includes Spectra(R), a groundbreaking blend of ingredients clinically shown to reduce the inflammatory response, reduce nitrosative and oxidative stress, fight free radicals, and promote nitric oxide production.

For maximum nutrient and immunity support, stack this with IMMUNE-AF

Backed by Science to Help Optimize:






Vitamin A (as Retinyl Palmitate):  Vitamin A is the generic term for a group of fat-soluble compounds highly important for human health. They’re essential for many processes in your body such as maintaining healthy vision, ensuring the normal function of your immune system and aiding the proper growth and development of babies in the womb.

Here are 6 important health benefits of vitamin A:

1. Protects Your Eyes From Night Blindness and Age-Related Decline. Vitamin A is essential for preserving your eyesight. 

It's needed to convert the light that hits your eye into an electrical signal that can be sent to your brain. In fact, one of the first symptoms of vitamin A deficiency is night blindness, known as nyctalopia.

2. May Lower Your Risk of Certain Cancers. Cancer occurs when abnormal cells begin to grow or divide in an uncontrolled way. As vitamin A plays an important role in the growth and development of your cells, its influence on cancer risk and role in cancer prevention is of keen interest to researchers. 

In observational studies, eating higher amounts of vitamin A in the form of beta-carotene has been linked to a decreased risk of certain types of cancer, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, as well as cervical, lung and bladder cancer.

3. Supports a Healthy Immune System. Vitamin A plays a vital role in maintaining your body’s natural defenses such as the mucous barriers in your eyes, lungs, gut and genitals. 

Their functions are to help trap bacteria and other infectious agents. Vitamin A is also involved in the production and function of white blood cells, which help capture and clear bacteria and other pathogens from your bloodstream.  This means that a deficiency in vitamin A can increase your susceptibility to infections and delay your recovery when you get sick.

Vitamin A deficiency impairs both the innate and adaptive immune response to infection. In particular, mucosal integrity and Th2-mediated responses are compromised. A recent study (figure below) showed that vitamin A supplementation after neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia inhibited the progression of asthma by altering CD4+T cell subsets. 

This provides a novel strategy for the prevention of allergic asthma induced by S. pneumoniae pneumonia.  CD4 cells are a type of lymphocyte which help coordinate the immune response by stimulating other immune cells, such as macrophages, B lymphocytes (B cells), and CD8 T lymphocytes (CD8 cells), to fight infection.

Fig: Vitamin A supplement after neonatal S. pneumoniae pneumonia significantly reduced inflammatory cells infiltration during AAD. Total cells (A), neutrophils (B), eosinophils (C), macrophages (D) and lymphocyte (E) were counted from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) collected 24 h after the final challenge. Control (mock-infected, non-allergic); OVA (mock-infected, allergic); S.pp/OVA (neonatal infected, allergic); S.pp+VA/OVA (vitamin A supplementary after neonatal infection, allergic). Data are shown as mean ± standard error from three separate experiments (n = 6–8 mice/group). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.  Ref: Sci Rep. 2020 Mar 6;10(1):4214

4. Reduces Your Risk of Acne. The exact role that vitamin A plays in the development and treatment of acne remains unclear. 

It has been suggested that vitamin A deficiency may increase your risk of developing acne, as it causes an overproduction of the protein keratin in your hair follicles.  This would increase your risk of acne by making it more difficult for dead skin cells to be removed from hair follicles, leading to blockages.

5. Supports Bone Health. The key nutrients needed for maintaining healthy bones as you age are protein are calcium and vitamin D. 

However, eating enough vitamin A is also necessary for proper bone growth and development, and a deficiency in this vitamin has been linked to poor bone health.  In fact, people with lower blood levels of vitamin A are at a higher risk of bone fractures than people with healthy levels.

6. Promotes Healthy Growth and Reproduction. Vitamin A is essential for maintaining a healthy reproductive system in both men and women, as well as ensuring the normal growth and development of embryos during pregnancy. 

Animal studies examining the importance of vitamin A in male reproduction have shown that a deficiency blocks the development of sperm cells, causing infertility. In addition; studies have suggested that vitamin A deficiency in females can impact reproduction by reducing egg quality and affecting egg implantation in the womb.


B1 (as Thiamine Mononitrate): Thiamine is an essential nutrient that all tissues of the body need to function properly. 

Thiamine was the first B vitamin that scientists discovered; hence why its name carries the number 1. Like the other B vitamins, thiamine is water-soluble and helps the body turn food into energy.

You can find it in foods, individual supplements, and multivitamins.  The body needs thiamine to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is a molecule that transports energy within cells.

A deficiency in vitamin B1 has detrimental neurological effects linked to neuroinflammation, T cell infiltration, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6) and arachidonic acid products. 

This causes an immune response that can be harmful to neurons.  The neurological damage caused by thiamin deficiency has a multifaceted etiology which involves an increase in the production of free radicals and oxidative stress, damage of the axonal membranes and neuronal death; thus affecting the function of your nervous system


B2 (as Riboflavin): Vitamin B2 refers to the molecule known as riboflavin, which is a vitamin because it can produce two cofactors abbreviated as FAD and FMN. Some proteins in the body are dependent on these cofactors to function optimally. 

Dietary riboflavin is the sole provider of FAD and FMN for these enzymes, which are called flavoproteins since FAD and FMN are 'flavins' and work in concert with these proteins.

Some of the health benefits of Vitamin B2 include:

  1. Anti-inflammatory: Riboflavin shows anti-inflammatory properties under various circumstances. 
  2. Cognitive function: Higher dietary intake of riboflavin is associated with better mental performance.
  3. Bone health: B2 and other B vitamins play a protective role in bone health.
  4. Liver health: Riboflavin may be used as a liver protective agent from liver toxins.

Fig: Effects of riboflavin on pro-inflammatory TNF-α production in whole blood of different experimental groups.



Vitamin B2 deficiency primarily results in anemia, inflammation, cognitive dysfunction and depression.  Anemia is a deficiency in the number or quality of red blood cells in your body. 

The role riboflavin in the immune system is closely associated with the function of mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) which are unique as they are the only αβ T cells activated by MR1-bound riboflavin metabolite derivatives. 

MAIT cells make up a subset of T cells in the immune system that display innate, effector-like qualities. In humans, MAIT cells are found in the blood, liver, lungs, and mucosa, defending against microbial activity and infection.



B3 (as Niacinamide): Niacinamide is one form of vitamin B3 (niacin) that plays an important role in energy metabolism and cell health. 

Vitamin B3 has the ability to overstimulate (up to 1000 times) the innate immune system, which are the cells involved in the first line of defense against invading organisms.

In fact, nicotinamide in high doses protects against Staphylococcus aureus infections without the need of further drugs. Nicotinic acid supplementation acts on monocytes to dampen the effects of inflammation, as shown in atherosclerosis.



B5 (as D-calcium pantothenate): Vitamin B5, or pantothenic acid, is involved in many different functions of the body. It helps convert food into energy and it also helps the body use proteins and fats.

Vitamin B5 is important for the immune, nervous, and gastrointestinal systems. It's a precursor for coenzyme A (CoA), which many different enzymatic pathways in the body need.

Vitamin B5 highlights:

  • Helps with immune and nervous system function
  • Aids metabolism of fats and carbohydrates
  • Balances cholesterol levels
  • May reduce stress


B6 (as Pyridoxine HCl): Vitamin B6 is an intriguing micronutrient that mediates numerous metabolic processes within the body including amino acid metabolism, gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism, and nervous system development and functioning.

Vitamin B6 has been implicated in the regulation of immune responses that are associated with a wide range of diseases, including inflammation and various cancers.  Previous studies suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency could impair immune responses.

Vitamin B6 contributes to intestinal immune regulation through the metabolism of the lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). S1P regulates lymphocyte trafficking into the intestines. Lymphocytes are white blood cells that are also one of the body’s main types of immune cells. 

The immune system is a complex network of cells that include lymphocytes. These cells work together to defend the body against foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells that can threaten the optimal functioning of the immune system.



B9 (as Folate): Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate, a water-soluble vitamin also known as vitamin B9.  It doesn’t occur naturally in food but is frequently added to supplements and refined grain products, such as bread and cereals.  Since folic acid is different from natural folate, it must be converted into an active form before your body can use it. 

The status of folic acid plays a major role in mood, depression and cognitive decline.  Pre-treatment with folic acid of cultured human monocytes has been shown to inhibit homocysteine-induced NF-ΚB which in turn is an important factor in the gene regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Patients with megaloblastic anemia, which is a clinical form of folate deficiency, are shown to suffer impaired immune which affects cell-mediated immunity. This condition, however, can be reversed with supplementation of folic acid.


B12 (as Methylcobalamin): Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a cobalt-containing vitamin that, in its active forms of methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin, catalyzes methionine synthesis.  In terms of host immunity, dietary vitamin B12 deficiency decreases the number of CD8+ T cells and suppresses natural killer T-cell activity.  Supplementation with methylcobalamin improves these conditions, suggesting that vitamin B12 contributes to the immune response via CD8+ T cells and natural killer T cells.

Natural Killer T cells are activated in response to interferons or macrophage-derived cytokines. They serve to contain and prevent viral infections from spreading while the adaptive immune response generates antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells that can clear the infection. Natural Killer T cells work to control viral infections by secreting IFNγ and TNFα.

Evidence from the research shows that vitamin B12 might play an important role in cellular immunity.  The consensus from the scientific community is that vitamin B12 acts as an enhancer for cellular immunity.



Vitamin C (as Ascorbic Acid): Vitamin C is a strong antioxidant that can strengthen your body’s natural defenses.  It’s an essential vitamin, meaning it can’t be produced by the body.  Vitamin C is conceivably the most popular supplement taken to protect against infection due to its important role in immune health.

This vitamin supports the function of various immune cells and enhances their ability to protect against infection. It’s also necessary for cellular death, which helps keep your immune system healthy by clearing out old cells and replacing them with new ones.  The figure below describes the mechanism of how Vitamin C clears out old cells.

Fig. Role of vitamin C in phagocyte function. Vitamin C has been shown to: (a) enhance neutrophil migration in response to chemoattractants (chemotaxis), (b) enhance engulfment (phagocytosis) of microbes, and (c) stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and killing of microbes. (d) Vitamin C supports caspase-dependent apoptosis, enhancing uptake and clearance by macrophages, and inhibits necrosis, including NETosis, thus supporting resolution of the inflammatory response and attenuating tissue damage. Ref. Nutrients. 2017 Nov; 9(11): 1211



In addition, vitamin C functions as a powerful antioxidant, protecting against damage induced by oxidative stress.  Oxidative stress can negatively affect immune health and is linked to numerous diseases. 

Supplementing with vitamin C has been shown to reduce the duration and severity of upper respiratory tract infections, including the common cold. A massive review of 29 studies in over 11,000 people demonstrated that regularly supplementing with vitamin C reduced the duration of colds by 8% in adults and 14% in children.

High dose vitamin C treatment significantly improved symptoms in people with severe infections, including sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) resulting from viral infections. 

These results confirm that vitamin C supplements may significantly affect immune health, especially in those who don’t get enough of the vitamin through their diet.  Supplementing with this nutrient may reduce the duration and severity of upper respiratory tract infections, including the common cold.



Vitamin D3 (as Cholecalciferol): Vitamin D is a fat soluble nutrient that is well known for its classic effects on calcium and bone homeostasis. Recent research shows that it is also essential to the health and functioning of your immune system. 

Vitamin D enhances the pathogen fighting effects of monocytes and macrophages — white blood cells that are important parts of your immune defense — and decreases inflammation, which helps promote immune response.

A deficiency in this vitamin may negatively affect immune function. In fact, low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of upper respiratory tract infections, including influenza and allergic asthma. 

It’s clear from the figure below that lower serum 5-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with significantly higher Upper Respiratory Tract Infections (URTI). Serum 5-hydroxyvitamin D levels had an inverse relationship with URTI.

Fig: Participants with recent upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) stratified by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (to convert to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 2.496) and season. Error bars represent standard errors of estimates.  Ref:  Arch Intern Med. 2009 Feb 23;169(4):384-90.


A recent review of randomized controlled studies in 11,321 people, supplementing with vitamin D significantly diminished the risk of respiratory infections in people who were deficient and lowered infection risk in those with adequate vitamin D levels which suggests an overall protective effect. 

Other studies note that vitamin D supplements may improve response to antiviral treatments in people with certain infections, including hepatitis C and HIV. 

It's clear from recent evidence-based research that Vitamin D is essential for immune function and healthy levels may help lower your risk of respiratory infections.

Fig: Decrease in serum viral load from weeks 8 to 24 in patients with the TG/GG genotypes randomized to the vitamin D and control groups. The decrease in viral load was significantly greater in the vitamin D than in the control group. Ref. J Viral Hepat. 2014 May;21(5):348-56.



Vitamin E (as Tocopheryl acetate):  Vitamin E is a fat-soluble, essential nutrient with anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin E helps support the immune system, cell function, and skin health.

It’s an antioxidant, making it effective at combating the effects of free radicals produced by the metabolism of food and toxins in the environment.  The most abundant ones in food are alpha- and gamma-tocopherol.  Dietary antioxidants like vitamin E contribute to strong immunity and general wellness.

Vitamin E plays a big role in your immune response. It helps immune cells stay active while protecting them against oxidative stress. 

Vitamin E deficiency impairs immune defense, making the body more prone to infectious and chronic diseases. According to studies on older people, vitamin E intake may lower the risk of bacterial and viral infections.

Fig: Effect of vitamin E supplementation (800 mg/day for 30 days) on immune response of healthy older adults. *Significant changes from baseline at P < 0.05. DTH, delayed-type hypersensitivity response; LP, lymphocyte proliferation; IL-2, interleukin-2; PGE2, prostaglandin E2. Ref: Immunol Rev. 2005 Jun;205:269-84.



Biotin: Biotin, also known as vitamin B7, is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin essential for the growth and development of all organisms.  As a coenzyme of carboxylase enzymes, vitamin B7 is involved in the metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates.

Biotin has been shown to be important for many health factors including supporting neurological functions, steadying blood sugar levels, DNA stability, and hair, skin and nail health. The body cannot synthesize vitamin B7, so it needs to be obtained regularly from the diet and intestinal bacteria.

Below are 3 main health Benefits of Biotin:

1. Energy Metabolism

Biotin is a coenzyme for carboxylases, the enzymes that assist in the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates for energy production. These enzymes are essential for the following processes:

  • Gluconeogenesis, the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from non-carbohydrate sources including amino acids.
  • Cellular energy production.
  • The use of branched-chain amino acids (e.g., leucine, isoleucine, and valine) for neurotransmitter production and energy.
  • Synthesis and breakdown of fatty acids for energy.
  • Insulin release.

Inadequate vitamin B7 levels in the body can slow down metabolism, which may lead to fatigue, digestive problems, and weight gain.

2. Brain Function

Biotin is required for myelin sheath formation, a fatty substance that surrounds nerves and facilitates nerve impulse conduction. As such, biotin deficiency can delay myelination.  Biotin deficiency can also lead to a number of other neurological symptoms, including seizures, lack of muscle coordination, learning disabilities, hallucinations, depression, and lethargy. Most of these conditions can be resolved with biotin supplementation.

3. Immune System Function

Vitamin B7 is needed for white blood cell development and its deficiency is linked to impaired immune function and an increased risk of infection.  It increases the production of Th1 cytokines like IL-1β and IFN-γ, which are essential for eliciting an immune response to fight bacterial and viral infections. 

Inadequate levels of vitamin B7 are associated with decreased antibody synthesis, T cell decay, and lower amounts of spleen cells and T cells in both animals and humans. 

The figure below shows the positive effect of biotin supplementation on expression of genes encoding the cytokines IL-1β, interferon-γ and IL-4 in human Peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These cytokines play important roles in cells of both the immune system and other tissues.

Fig: Biotin supplementation affects gene expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Healthy adults were supplemented with biotin for 21 d. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated before and after supplementation with biotin. RNA was isolated from cells 21 h after stimulation with concanavalin A ex vivo. The abundances of mRNA were quantified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Means from at least two independent experiments are reported. IL, interleukin; IFN, interferon. Ref: The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 133, Issue 3, March 2003, Pages 716–719



Chromium Picolinate: Chromium (Cr) is an essential micromineral, meaning that our body needs it in tiny amounts. Chromium is safe for human consumption in the form of supplements, and scientists have been researching its beneficial effects on blood sugar control. 

Chromium serves several important functions in the body.  For example, it is part of a molecule called chromodulin, which helps the hormone insulin perform its actions in the body.  Insulin, a molecule released by the pancreas, is important in your body’s processing of carbs, fat and protein. 

Interestingly, the absorption of chromium in the intestines is very low, with less than 2.5% of ingested chromium being absorbed. However, chromium picolinate is an alternate form of chromium that is absorbed better. For this reason, this type is commonly found in dietary supplements. 

Chromium picolinate is the mineral chromium attached to three molecules of picolinic acid.

In summary; chromium is a mineral found in low doses in many foods. It plays a role in the metabolism of nutrients through its impact on the hormone insulin. Chromium picolinate is the form often found in dietary supplements.


Copper Gluconate: Copper is an essential trace mineral in the human body. It is required for growth, bone strength, immune function, as well as heart function, and brain development.

Copper is an integral part (cofactor) of a group of enzymes called cuproenzymes, which are important for:

  • Energy production in the cell (cytochrome C oxidase).
  • Formation of strong and flexible connective tissue (lysyl oxidase).
  • Iron metabolism (multiple copper oxidases, ferroxidases).
  • The normal function of the brain and nervous system (dopamine β-hydroxylase, cytochrome C oxidase).
  • Antioxidant activity (superoxide dismutase, ceruloplasmin).
  • Formation of the pigment melanin (tyrosinase).

Due to its potent antimicrobial properties, copper is also used as a biocide in agriculture, wood preservation, paints, and in hospitals



Iodine: Iodine is a chemical element which is the heaviest and the least available of the stable “halogens”. In the human body, iodine exists in thyroid hormones and is thus essential for thyroid function. 

Iodine deficiency affects about two million people and is the leading preventable cause of intellectual disabilities.

Essential Roles of Iodine

  1. Thyroid Function: The synthesis of thyroid hormones is completely dependent on iodine. They are called triiodothyronine (T3 – three iodine atoms) and thyroxine (T4 – four iodine atoms). This makes iodine a central component of thyroid health. In developing countries, iodine deficiency is the leading cause of low thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism), which can be prevented by correcting iodine status.
  2. Healthy Pregnancy: In pregnancy, the mother requires a lot of iodine (especially in the early stages) as there is an increased hormone production. Iodine has to be transferred to the developing baby and there is a significant loss in the urine. Severe iodine deficiency in the mother affects the child`s brain development greatly and can lead to cretinism.  Mild iodine deficiency causes abnormalities in movement and intellectual development of the future child.
  3. Metabolic Protection: Recently, a study has shown that there is a high risk of iodine deficiency in women with high-level obesity.  Also, in the case of pregnant women, excess weight can be an additional risk of developing a deficiency in early pregnancy, which affects both the mother and the child.  In 163 women with both excess weight and iodine deficiency, the intake of 200 μg of iodine lowered cholesterol concentrations in their blood. In children with a mild form of iodine deficiency, iodine supplementation lowered both markers of inflammation and cholesterol, which helps prevent heart disease.


Prevalence of elevated plasma total cholesterol (.5 mmol/L) (A) and plasma LDL cholesterol (.3 mmol/L) (B) in overweight Moroccan women who received 200 mg iodine or a placebo daily for 6 mo, by group. Time by treatment interaction using generalized mixedmodel analysis: P = 0.015 (total cholesterol), P = 0.23 (LDL cholesterol). Error bars indicate 95% CIs. n = 77, 63, and 70 in the treatment group and n =77, 55, and 71 in the control group at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo, respectively.  Ref: J Nutr. 2015 Sep;145(9):2067-75



Manganese Bisglycinate Chelate:  Manganese is a trace mineral, which your body needs in small amounts.  It’s required for the normal functioning of your brain, nervous system and many of your body’s enzyme systems. While your body stores up to about 20 mg of manganese in your kidneys, liver, pancreas and bones, you also need to get it from your diet.  Manganese is considered an essential nutrient and can be found especially in seeds and whole grains, as well as in smaller amounts in legumes, beans, nuts, leafy green vegetables and tea.

One of the main benefits of manganese as it relates to immune health is that its strong antioxidant properties may reduce disease risk.  Manganese is a part of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), which is arguably one of the most important antioxidants in your body.  Antioxidants help protect against free radicals, which are molecules that can cause damage to cells in your body. Free radicals are believed to contribute to aging, heart disease and some cancers.

SOD specifically helps combat the negative effects of free radicals by converting superoxide — one of the most dangerous free radicals — into smaller molecules that won’t damage your cells.  In one study in 42 men, researchers concluded that low levels of SOD and poor total antioxidant status may play a larger role in heart disease risk than total cholesterol or triglyceride levels.  Therefore, researchers proposed that proper intake of antioxidant nutrients may reduce free radical generation and improve antioxidant status in those with the disease.  As manganese plays a role in SOD activity, consuming the mineral may help reduce disease risk.



Molybdenum Bisglycinate Chelate: You may not have heard of the trace mineral molybdenum, but it is essential to your health. Though your body only needs tiny amounts, it's a key component of many vital functions. Without it, deadly sulfites and toxins would build up in your body.

Molybdenum is widely available in the diet, but supplements are still popular. As with many supplements, high doses can be problematic. 

Molybdenum is vital for many processes in your body. Once you eat it, it is absorbed into your blood from your stomach and gut, then carried to your liver, kidneys and other areas. Some of this mineral is stored in the liver and kidneys, but most of it is converted into a molybdenum cofactor. Any excess molybdenum is then passed in urine.

The molybdenum cofactor activates four essential enzymes, which are biological molecules that drive chemical reactions in the body. Below are the four enzymes:

  1. Sulfite oxidase: Converts sulfite to sulfate, preventing the dangerous buildup of sulfites in the body.
  2. Aldehyde oxidase: Breaks down aldehydes, which can be toxic to the body. Also, it helps the liver break down alcohol and some drugs, such as those used in cancer therapy.
  3. Xanthine oxidase: Converts xanthine to uric acid. This reaction helps break down nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA, when they're no longer needed. They can then be excreted in the urine.
  4. Mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component (mARC): This enzyme's function isn't fully understood, but it's thought to remove toxic byproducts of metabolism.

Molybdenum's role in breaking down sulfites is especially important.  Sulfites are found naturally in foods and also sometimes added as a preservative. If they build up in the body, they can trigger an allergic reaction that can include diarrhea, skin problems or even breathing difficulties.



Selenium Citrate: Selenium is an essential mineral needed for immunity, thyroid health, antioxidant protection, and more. Selenium also binds to the sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine and forms antioxidant selenoproteins in the body. Selenoproteins carry selenium to the tissues, reduce inflammation, and support a healthy immune system and thyroid gland.

Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects:

Selenium forms selenoproteins, key players in antioxidant defense, and increases the activity of genes that make them. Selenium blocks the activation of NF-kB, the main controller of inflammation in the body.

As a result, fewer inflammatory substances are released into the bloodstream (including IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha).  Adequate selenium intake may also lower the inflammatory marker CRP, which is high in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

Viral Infections:

Lack of selenium can set off the immune system and cause even harmless virus infections to progress and become dangerous. In the most severe cases, this can result in complete heart failure (Keshan disease). 

Adequate selenium intake protects immune cells and aids in producing antibodies. Lower selenium levels can increase damage (via oxidative stress) in healthy cells, reducing immune defense, activating viruses, and triggering their faster division. 

HIV infections can trigger selenium deficiency, while supplementation may help fight HIV and improve outcomes. In one trial of 18 HIV-positive people, selenium in combination with conventional drugs improved the quality of life. Selenium also blocked the replication of the virus in cellular and animal studies.

Selenium levels may predict the disease outcome in HIV-positive people. In one study, selenium-deficient HIV patients were almost 20 times more likely to die from HIV than those with normal selenium levels. In one study on children, low selenium levels not only increased the likelihood of dying from HIV but were also linked to faster spreading of the disease.

Mean± SE treatment effect relative to pretreatment baseline for the serum selenium level (A), and the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load and CD4 cell count (B) comparing placebo-treated subjects (who displayed a serum selenium change[▲]≤26.1 µg/L [n=80]), selenium-treated nonresponders (who displayed a serum selenium change≤26.1 µg/L [n=40]), and selenium-treated responders (who displayed a serum selenium change >26.1 µg/L [n=50] Ref: Arch Intern Med. 2007 Jan 22;167(2):148-54.




Zinc Gluconate: Zinc is considered an essential nutrient, meaning that your body can’t produce or store it.  You need to get a constant supply through diet or supplementation. 

Zinc is required for numerous processes in your body, including gene expression, enzymatic reactions, immune function, protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, wound healing, and growth and development. 

It is commonly added to supplements and other healthcare products like lozenges that are meant to boost your immune system. This is because zinc is essential for immune system function.  Zinc is needed for immune cell development and communication and plays an important role in the inflammatory response.

A deficiency in this nutrient significantly affects your immune system’s ability to function properly.  This results in an increased risk of infection and disease, including pneumonia.  Numerous studies show that zinc supplements may protect against respiratory tract infections like the common cold. 

Supplementing with zinc may be beneficial for those who are already sick.  Recent data from children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs) who took zinc daily decreased the total duration of infection time in the hospital by an average of 2 days, compared with a group not taking zinc. 

Supplementing with zinc has also been shown to reduce the duration of the common cold (see figure below).  The evidence is quite convincing that supplementing with zinc may help protect against respiratory tract infections and reduce the duration of these infections.

Fig. Fractions of zinc and placebo groups reporting symptoms at various times after starting treatment, showing that zinc lozenges reduce duration of common colds. Ref. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1984 Jan;25(1):20-4.



Choline Bitartrate:  Choline is an essential nutrient.  This means it's required for normal bodily function and human health. Though your liver can make small amounts, you must obtain the majority through your diet.  Choline is an organic, water-soluble compound. It is neither a vitamin nor a mineral.  However, it is often grouped with the vitamin B complex due to its similarities. In fact, this nutrient affects a number of vital bodily functions.  It impacts liver function, healthy brain development, muscle movement, your nervous system and metabolism. Therefore, adequate amounts are needed for optimal health.

Choline plays an important part in many processes in your body, including:

  • Cell structure: It is needed to make fats that support the structural integrity of cell membranes.
  • Cell messaging: It is involved in the production of compounds that act as cell messengers.
  • Fat transport and metabolism: It is essential for making a substance required for removing cholesterol from your liver. Inadequate choline may result in fat and cholesterol buildup in your liver.
  • DNA synthesis: Choline and other vitamins, such as B12 and folate, help with a process that's important for DNA synthesis.
  • A healthy nervous system: This nutrient is required to make acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter. It's involved in memory, muscle movement, regulating heartbeat and other basic functions.

Memory and Brain Function

Large observational studies link choline intake and blood levels to improved brain function, including better memory and processing.  Supplementing with 1,000 mg per day led to improved short- and long-term verbal memory in adults aged 50–85 who had poor memory.  In a 6-month study, giving phosphatidylcholine to people with early Alzheimer's disease modestly improved memory in one small subgroup.



Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral found in our body. It is essential to all living cells and vital for numerous physiological functions. Magnesium is required for the production of ATP (the main source of energy in our cells), and the production of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Magnesium plays an important role in cell-to-cell communication. Over 300 enzymes require the presence of magnesium to function properly. Because of its positive charge, magnesium stabilizes the cellular membranes.

Magnesium is important for:

  • bone health
  • muscle contraction and relaxation
  • heart rhythm and blood pressure
  • stabilizing blood glucose levels, and regulating sugar and fat metabolisms
  • neurotransmitter production and regulation
  • neural function
  • immune system

Boost Exercise Performance:

During exercise, you may need 10–20% more magnesium than when you're resting, depending on the activity.  Magnesium helps move blood sugar into your muscles and dispose of lactate, which can build up during exercise and cause fatigue. Studies have shown that supplementing with it can boost exercise performance for athletes, the elderly and people with chronic disease. 

Anti-Inflammatory Benefits

Low magnesium intake is linked to chronic inflammation, which is one of the drivers of aging, obesity and chronic disease.  In one study, children with the lowest blood magnesium levels were found to have the highest levels of the inflammatory marker CRP.  They also had higher blood sugar, insulin and triglyceride levels. 

Magnesium supplements can reduce CRP and other markers of inflammation in older adults, overweight people and those with prediabetes.  In the same way, high-magnesium foods — such as fatty fish and dark chocolate — can reduce inflammation. 

The figure below shows that magnesium supplementation for 4 weeks in overweight individuals led to distinct changes in gene expression and proteomic profiling consistent with favorable effects on several metabolic pathways.

Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmation of microarray results for TRPM6 and TRPM7 (n = 9). Mean (6SD) fold changes were calculated by comparing the differences in expression across magnesium (MG) and placebo treatments. Ref: Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb;93(2):463-73



Calcium Carbonate: Calcium carbonate is made of calcium, oxygen, and carbon. Calcium, being the most abundant mineral in the human body, accounts for 1-2% of its weight. But only around 1% of the total body calcium is found in the blood, while the remaining 99% is stored in the bones and teeth. 

Every cell in the body needs calcium to work. This essential mineral supports the bones, heart, muscles, and nervous system. Among the various forms of calcium salts added to supplements, calcium carbonate is the most common. It contains 40% elemental calcium, the highest of any form.

Benefits of calcium carbonate during intense exercise:

Some evidence suggests calcium can improve bone health in physically active people, including athletes, military personnel, and manual workers. During intense exercise, blood pH levels drop as lactate levels rise. To compensate, the body releases calcium from bones, which increases bone loss if the demand for calcium isn’t met.

Calcium supplements might be helpful during these periods of intense strain on the whole body and skeletal system.  In one trial with 243 army personnel, calcium and vitamin D improved bone density (BMD) and strength. 

In another trial, 32 well-trained female athletes were given a meal with ~1350 mg calcium 90 minutes before strenuous exercise. Calcium reduced the typical bone loss seen with prolonged high-intensity exercise.

Serum concentrations of biomarkers for bone turn over, calcium homeostasis and haematocrit before and after control (CON) and calcium-rich (CAL) meal conditions and exercise. Mean ± 95% CI Haematocrit (Hct; A); ionized cacium (iCa: B); and concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH: C); cross linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I: D); cross linked C-telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II: E); procollagen I N-terminal propeptide (PINP: F); and at each time point for control (CON: open circles) and calcium (CAL: solid squares) trials. Blood samples were taken pre-trial at T = -15 min; pre-exercise at T = 115 min; and post-exercise at all subsequent time points. *Significant difference (p < 0.05) between trial meal conditions at the indicated time point Ref: PLoS One. 2015 May 13;10(5):e0123302



ONE+ not only combines 23 vitamins and minerals to create comprehensive wellness support, but it also includes Spectra®, a groundbreaking blend of ingredients clinically shown to reduce the inflammatory response, reduce nitrosative and oxidative stress, fight free radicals, and promote nitric oxide production.

Spectra™: This full-spectrum antioxidant activity product is a proprietary combination of fruit, vegetable, and herb extracts and concentrates: broccoli powder and broccoli sprouts concentrate, onion extract, tomato concentrate, dried carrot, spinach, kale concentrate, brussel sprout concentrate, whole coffee fruits extract, acerola extract, camu camu powder, acai berry concentrate, mangosteen concentrate, green tea extract, apple extract, turmeric concentrate, garlic, basil concentrate, oregano, cinnamon concentrate, elderberry concentrate, blackcurrant extract, blueberry extract, sweet cherry powder, blackberry powder, chokeberry, raspberry powder, and bilberry extract. The ORAC 5.0 assay measures antioxidant activities against hydroxyl, peroxyl, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, and superoxide anion. SPECTRA™ is standardized to minimum 40,000 μmol trolox equivalent (TE) per gram of ORAC 5.0 assay

Scientists were able to measure the biological effects of a natural dietary supplement on changes of “oxidative and nitrosative stress markers” and cellular metabolic activity through the use of the extended “Vitality Test.” Unique activity of SPECTRA™ suggests potential for the use of the supplement in modulation of oxidative stress, NO bioavailability, inflammatory response, blood glucose levels, and ultimately supporting “optimal health.”

Inhibition of TNFα-induced “cellular inflammatory response” after single dose of SPECTRA™ in blood cells collected from human volunteers. This testing measured response of blood cells after chemical insult by stimulation with 40 ng/mL of exogenous human TNFα. As expected, this stimulation subsequently induced ROS (H2O2) formation. Levels of H2O2 in blood samples from the study subjects were analyzed using EPR spectrometer nOxyscan, nonmembrane permeable spin probe PPH (500 μmol/L). Blue column (control): 180 min after consumption of standard breakfast (bread roll with glass of water); red column (placebo): 180 min after consumption of standard breakfast and placebo capsule; and Green column (SPECTRA™): 180 minutes after consumption of standard breakfast and SPECTRA™ capsule. The accumulation of oxidized PP-radical was observed during 1 h incubation at 37C and 40 mmHg oxygen partial pressure. Data are mean ± SEM (n = 22), P < 0.01 versus placebo. Baseline and posttreatment levels of TNF-α were not measured. ROS, reactive oxygen species.


ONE+ covers every aspect of essential vitamins and nutrients men and women need to sustain energy, metabolism, and cognitive functions, making sure that you get the most out of your training and daily life.

PRO TIP: For maximum nutrient and immunity support, stack with IMMUNE-AF!

Dr. Paul Henning, PhD

About Dr. Paul

I'm currently an Army officer on active duty with over 15 years of experience and also run my own health and wellness business. The majority of my career in the military has focused on enhancing Warfighter health and performance. I am passionate about helping people enhance all aspects of their lives through health and wellness. Learn more about me