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May 10, 2024 15 min read

Optimized VO₂ max is key to enhancing aerobic endurance and overall athletic performance. By implementing effective training strategies and adopting a balanced approach to nutrition and recovery, individuals can optimize their VO₂ max and take their fitness to the next level. This article explores the best ways to improve VO₂ max and achieve peak performance.

What is VO2 Max?

VO₂ max, or maximal oxygen uptake, is a measure of the maximum amount of oxygen that an individual can utilize during intense exercise. It is a key indicator of aerobic endurance and cardiovascular fitness. It is also a way to determine cardiorespiratory fitness.

VO₂ max is typically expressed as milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute (mL/kg/min).

It is influenced by factors such as genetics, age, sex, and training status, and can be improved through regular aerobic exercise.

VO₂ max is often used by athletes and fitness enthusiasts to assess and track their fitness levels.

Benefits of Improving VO2 Max

Improving your VO₂ max can have several benefits, including:

  1. Improved cardiovascular health: Higher VO₂ max is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks, strokes, and high blood pressure.

  2. Enhanced athletic performance and endurance: Higher VO₂ max allows athletes to sustain higher intensity workouts for longer durations, improving their overall performance in endurance sports.

  3. Increased stamina: Improved oxygen delivery to muscles allows for better endurance and stamina, making everyday activities easier and reducing fatigue during exercise.

  4. Better overall health: Regular cardiovascular exercise that improves VO₂ max can help maintain a healthy weight, improve mood, and boost overall well-being.

  5. Delayed aging: Higher VO₂ max is associated with better cellular health and may help slow down the aging process. Studies have shown that VO₂ max is a key predictor of longevity.

  6. Improved recovery rate: Faster recovery after intense exercise is often seen in individuals with higher VO₂ max, allowing for more frequent and effective training sessions.

  7. Enhanced metabolic efficiency: Higher VO₂ max is typically associated with improved metabolism, which can lead to better energy levels and weight management.

How is VO2 Max Measured?

V02 Max test

VO₂ max is typically measured through a graded exercise test, where the individual exercises on a treadmill or stationary bike while their oxygen consumption, maximum heart rate, and ventilation are monitored. The test starts at a relatively low intensity and gradually increases in difficulty until the individual reaches their maximal effort or can no longer continue.

During the VO2 max test, the individual wears a mask connected to a machine that analyzes the oxygen and carbon dioxide in their breath. This allows for the measurement of how much oxygen is being consumed and how much carbon dioxide is being produced, which provides an indirect measurement of aerobic capacity.

Submaximal V02 test

Another method is the use of predictive equations based on submaximal exercise tests or field tests like the Cooper test or the Rockport Walking Test, which estimate VO₂ max based on performance on these tests.

It's important to note that while these methods provide a good estimate of VO₂ max, a true maximal effort test performed in a laboratory setting is considered the most accurate way to measure VO₂ max.

What is a ‘Good’ VO2 Max Value?

A “good” VO₂ max value depends on various factors such as age, sex, and fitness level. Generally, VO₂ max values can be classified into different categories:

Excellent: Men: > 50 mL/kg/min; Women: > 40 mL/kg/min

Good: Men: 45-50 mL/kg/min; Women: 35-40 mL/kg/min

Average: Men: 40-45 mL/kg/min; Women: 30-35 mL/kg/min

Poor: Men: < 40 mL/kg/min; Women: < 30 mL/kg/min

These values can serve as a general guideline, but what's considered good can vary based on individual goals and contexts. The American College of Sports Medicine provides a detailed report on average VO₂ max scores by age and sex.

Athletes, for example, often have higher VO₂ max values than the average person. It's also worth noting that VO₂ max tends to decline with age, so what might be considered good for a younger person may be different for an older individual.

Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercises

Aerobic and anaerobic exercises play different roles in enhancing VO₂ max:

— Aerobic Exercise

Aerobic activities such as running, cycling, swimming, and brisk walking primarily use oxygen to produce energy. These exercises are key for improving VO₂ max as they train the cardiovascular system to deliver oxygen to the muscles more efficiently.

Aerobic exercises improve the heart's ability to pump blood, increase capillarization (the number of small blood vessels) in muscles, and enhance the muscles' ability to use oxygen.

— Anaerobic Exercise

Anaerobic activities, such as sprinting, weightlifting, and high-intensity interval training (HIIT), involve short bursts of intense activity that does not rely on oxygen for energy production.

While anaerobic exercises do not directly improve VO₂ max, they can complement aerobic training by improving muscular strength, power, and efficiency, which can enhance overall performance and endurance during aerobic activities.

Additionally, some forms of anaerobic exercise, like HIIT, have been shown to produce better Vo2 max improvements than continuous aerobic exercise due to their high-intensity nature and ability to challenge the cardiovascular system.

Incorporating both aerobic and anaerobic exercises into your fitness routine can provide a well-rounded approach to improving VO₂ max and overall fitness. Aerobic exercises build a strong cardiovascular foundation, while anaerobic exercises improve muscular strength and efficiency, leading to better overall performance and endurance.

5 Proven Methods to Enhance VO2 Max

Whether you're an elite athlete or a beginner just starting out, boosting your maximum oxygen consumption can really kick your game up. In the following exercises and training techniques, we will uncover the secrets to unlocking your body’s full potential.  Improving your VO₂ max is crucial for enhancing your stamina, and it is best to discuss a training regime with a CPT for guidelines.

1. High-Intensity Interval Training


High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a form of cardiovascular exercise that alternates between short, intense bursts of activity and periods of lower-intensity exercise or rest.

HIIT is known for its effectiveness in improving cardiovascular fitness, burning calories, and boosting metabolism.

Here's how it typically works:

  1. Warm-up: Start with a brief warm-up to prepare your muscles and cardiovascular system for the workout. This can include light jogging, jumping jacks, or dynamic stretches.

  2. Interval 1 (High Intensity): Perform a high-intensity exercise for a short duration, such as sprinting or cycling at maximum effort for 20–30 seconds.

  3. Recovery Interval: Immediately following the high-intensity interval, switch to a lower-intensity exercise or rest period. This allows your heart rate to come down slightly before the next high-intensity interval.

  4. Interval 2 (High Intensity): Repeat the high-intensity interval, aiming for the same intensity as the first interval.

  5. Repeat: Continue alternating between high-intensity intervals and recovery intervals for several rounds, depending on your fitness level and goals.

  6. Cool Down: Finish with a cool-down period to gradually lower your heart rate and stretch your muscles. This can include walking or gentle stretching exercises.

Example Exercises for HIIT:

— Sprinting: Sprint at maximum effort for 20–30 seconds, followed by a 1-minute walk or light jog.

— Cycling: Cycle at maximum resistance or speed for 30 seconds, followed by 1–2 minutes of easy cycling.

— Burpees: Perform a set of burpees at a fast pace for 20–30 seconds, followed by a short rest.

— Jumping Jacks: Do jumping jacks at a fast pace for 30 seconds, followed by a brief rest.

— High Knees: Run in place, lifting your knees as high as possible, for 30 seconds, followed by a 1-minute rest.

Adjust the duration and intensity of the intervals based on your fitness level and goals. High-intensity interval workouts can be modified to suit different aerobic fitness levels and can be done with bodyweight exercises, cardio machines, or outdoor activities.

2. Long, Slow Distance (LSD) Training

LSD training

Long, slow distance (LSD) training is a form of aerobic exercise that involves performing cardiovascular activities at a moderate intensity for an extended period. The goal of LSD training is to improve endurance and build a strong aerobic base.

Here's how LSD training typically works:

  1. Warm-up: Begin with a gentle warm-up to prepare your muscles and cardiovascular system for the workout. This can include walking, light jogging, or dynamic stretches.

  2. Main Workout: Perform the main workout at a steady, moderate pace. The intensity should be comfortable enough to sustain for an extended period, typically 30 minutes to several hours, depending on your fitness level and goals.

  3. Cool Down: Finish with a cool-down period to gradually lower your heart rate and stretch your muscles. This can include walking or gentle stretching exercises.

Example Exercises for LSD Training:

— Long run: Run at a steady pace for 45 minutes to 2 hours, depending on your fitness level and goals.

— Cycling: Ride a bike at a moderate pace for 1–3 hours, enjoying the scenery and maintaining a comfortable intensity.

— Hiking: Take a long hike on a scenic trail, focusing on maintaining a steady pace and enjoying the outdoors.

— Swimming: Swim laps at a moderate pace for 30 minutes to 1 hour, focusing on maintaining a consistent effort.

LSD training is ideal for building aerobic endurance and is often used by distance runners, cyclists, and triathletes to prepare for long races. The key is to maintain a steady pace that allows you to complete the workout without feeling overly fatigued. Adjust the duration and intensity of the workout based on your fitness level and goals.

3. Plyometric Exercises

Plyometric training

Plyometric exercises can indirectly benefit VO₂ max by improving muscular power, strength, and efficiency, which can enhance overall athletic performance and endurance. While plyometrics primarily focus on developing explosive strength, they also involve cardiovascular components that can contribute to improved VO₂ max.

Plyometric exercises involve rapid and powerful movements that engage large muscle groups, such as the legs and core. These exercises typically include jumps, bounds, and hops, which require a significant amount of energy and oxygen to perform. As a result, regular plyometric training can lead to improvements in cardiovascular fitness, which is one of the key factors influencing VO₂ max.

Additionally, plyometric exercises can improve muscle recruitment and coordination, leading to more efficient movement patterns. This efficiency can translate to better overall performance during aerobic exercises, potentially leading to improvements in VO₂ max over time.

While plyometrics alone may not be as effective as traditional aerobic training for improving VO₂ max, incorporating plyometric exercises into a well-rounded fitness routine that includes aerobic and anaerobic training can contribute to overall cardiovascular fitness and performance.

4. Strength Training

Strength training

Strength training can improve VO₂ max through several mechanisms, despite primarily being anaerobic in nature.

Here's how:

  1. Muscle efficiency: Strength training improves the efficiency of the muscles, allowing them to produce more force with less effort. This efficiency can translate to improved performance during aerobic activities, potentially leading to improvements in VO₂ max.

  2. Muscle mass: Strength training can increase muscle mass, which can lead to a higher basal metabolic rate (BMR). A higher BMR means the body burns more calories at rest, which can help maintain a healthy weight and improve overall cardiovascular health.

  3. Metabolic rate: Strength training can increase the body's production of growth hormone and testosterone, which can help improve metabolism and energy production, contributing to improved cardiovascular fitness.

  4. Muscle fiber recruitment: Strength training can improve the recruitment of fast-twitch muscle fibers, which are important for explosive movements. These fibers also have a high capacity for glycolytic energy production, which can help improve overall endurance and VO₂ max.

Examples of Strength Training Exercises to Improve VO₂ Max

— Squats: This exercise targets the legs, core, and back muscles, improving overall lower body strength and power.

— Deadlifts: Deadlifts target the posterior chain, including the lower back, glutes, and hamstrings, improving overall strength and power.

— Push-ups: Push-ups target the chest, shoulders, and triceps, improving upper body strength and endurance.

— Pull-ups: Pull-ups target the back, biceps, and shoulders, improving upper body strength and endurance.

— Lunges: Lunges target the legs and glutes, improving lower body strength, stability, and power.

— Planks: Planks target the core muscles, improving overall core strength and stability.

Incorporating these exercises into your fitness routine, along with aerobic and anaerobic exercises, can help improve overall fitness and potentially lead to improvements in VO₂ max.

5. Altitude Training

Altitude training

Altitude training, also known as hypoxic training, involves exercising in low-oxygen environments, typically at altitudes higher than sea level.

This type of endurance training can have several effects on the body that may improve VO₂ max and overall athletic performance:

  1. Increased red blood cell production: Exercising at altitude stimulates the body to produce more red blood cells, which are responsible for transporting oxygen to the muscles. This increase in red blood cells can improve oxygen delivery and utilization, leading to improved VO₂ max.

  2. Improved oxygen utilization: Training at altitude can improve the muscles' ability to extract oxygen from the blood and use it more efficiently. This can lead to improved endurance and performance during aerobic activities.

  3. Increased lung capacity: Exercising in a low-oxygen environment can stimulate the lungs to work harder, leading to improved lung capacity and oxygen uptake.

  4. Enhanced aerobic metabolism: Altitude training can stimulate the production of enzymes and proteins involved in aerobic metabolism, which can improve the body's ability to use oxygen for energy production.

Examples of Altitude Training Methods

— Living at altitude: Spending an extended period (typically several weeks) at high altitude to acclimatize to the lower oxygen levels. This can be done at high-altitude training camps or by living in a high-altitude location.

— Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT): This involves breathing low-oxygen air for short periods (usually a few minutes) followed by normal oxygen air. This can be done using specialized equipment or by training in a hypoxic chamber.

— Training at altitude: Performing regular exercise at high altitude to take advantage of the physiological adaptations that occur at altitude. This can include running, cycling, or hiking at high altitude.

Altitude training should be approached with caution, as training at high altitude can increase the risk of altitude sickness and other health issues. It's important to gradually acclimatize to high altitude and listen to your body's signals to avoid overexertion. Consulting with a healthcare professional or sports scientist before starting altitude training is recommended.

Importance of Proper Nutrition for Optimal VO2 Max

Nutrition for V02 Max

Proper nutrition plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal VO₂ max and overall athletic performance. Carbohydrates, proteins, and hydration are particularly essential for supporting energy production, muscle repair, and overall health, all of which can impact VO₂ max.

Here's how each of these nutrients contributes:

1. Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are the body's primary source of energy, especially during high-intensity exercise. They are stored in the muscles and liver as glycogen, which is converted into glucose for energy.

Adequate carbohydrate intake is essential for maintaining glycogen stores and supporting endurance during aerobic activities. Consuming carbohydrates before, during, and after exercise can help optimize glycogen levels and support performance.

2. Proteins

Proteins are essential for muscle repair and growth. During exercise, especially strength training and endurance activities, muscles undergo stress and damage that require repair.

Adequate protein intake supports muscle recovery, which is important for maintaining strength and endurance over time. Including protein-rich foods in your diet, such as lean meats, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and nuts, can help support muscle health and performance.

3. Hydration

Proper hydration is critical for maintaining optimal performance and VO₂ max. Dehydration can lead to decreased blood volume, which can reduce the delivery of oxygen to the muscles and impair performance.

Staying hydrated before, during, and after exercise helps maintain blood volume, regulate body temperature, and support overall cardiovascular function. Water is usually sufficient for hydration, but during intense or prolonged exercise, electrolyte-containing beverages may be beneficial to replace lost electrolytes.

In addition to these nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants also play significant roles in supporting overall health and performance. A balanced diet that includes various nutrient-rich foods, along with adequate hydration, can help support optimal VO₂ max and overall athletic performance.



While proper nutrition is key for supporting overall health and athletic performance, there are several supplements that may help enhance VO₂ max when combined with a balanced diet and regular exercise. It's important to note that individual responses to supplements can vary, and consulting a healthcare provider before starting any supplement regimen is recommended.

Here are some supplements that may have potential benefits for VO₂ max:

  1. Beetroot juice: Beetroot juice is high in nitrates, which are converted into nitric oxide in the body. Nitric oxide helps dilate blood vessels, improving blood flow and oxygen delivery to muscles, potentially enhancing VO₂ max and exercise performance.

  2. Protein Powder: Pack on lean muscle and support strength levels, without unnecessary carbs. STEEL's WHEY-PRO and VEG-PRO protein powder are loaded with micronutrient compounds to support you in reaching your goals. They provide invaluable muscle-building and immune system supporting compounds, ideal for optimizing VO₂ max.

  1. Creatine: Creatine is a compound that helps produce energy during high-intensity exercise. While creatine is more commonly associated with strength and power sports, some research suggests that it may also benefit endurance athletes by improving oxygen utilization and endurance performance.

  2. Caffeine: Caffeine is a stimulant that can enhance endurance performance by increasing alertness, reducing perceived exertion, and improving fat oxidation. Consuming caffeine before exercise may help improve VO₂ max and overall endurance.

  3. Beta-alanine: Beta-alanine is an amino acid that helps increase muscle carnosine levels. According to a meta-analysis published in 2012, beta-alanine can improve muscle buffering capacity and delay fatigue during high-intensity exercise. This may indirectly benefit VO₂ max by allowing you to sustain higher intensities for longer durations.

  4. Rhodiola Rosea: Rhodiola Rosea is an adaptogenic herb that may help improve endurance and reduce fatigue. Some studies suggest that it may enhance oxygen uptake and utilization, potentially benefiting VO₂ max.

  5. Fish oil: Fish oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which have anti-inflammatory properties and may improve cardiovascular health. Some research suggests that fish oil supplementation may enhance exercise performance and VO₂ max, particularly in endurance athletes.

It's important to remember that supplements should complement, not replace, a healthy diet and regular exercise routine. Additionally, individual responses to supplements can vary, so it's essential to consult a healthcare provider or sports nutritionist before starting any supplement regimen.

Rest and Recovery

Proper Sleep

Rest and recovery are essential components of any training program aimed at improving VO₂ max and overall athletic performance.

Here's why:

Muscle Repair and Growth

Intense exercise, especially aerobic activities, can cause micro-tears in muscle fibers. Rest and recovery allow these muscles to repair and grow stronger, which is essential for improving endurance and performance.

Energy Restoration

During exercise, the body depletes its glycogen stores and breaks down muscle protein for energy. Rest and recovery allow the body to replenish glycogen stores and rebuild muscle protein, which is critical for maintaining energy levels and supporting future workouts.


Quality sleep is also a crucial component of rest and recovery, as it plays a significant role in supporting optimal athletic performance. During sleep, the body repairs and regenerates tissues, releases growth hormones, and consolidates memories, all of which are important for physical and mental recovery. Aim for 7–9 hours of quality sleep per night to support your training and overall health.

Prevention of Overtraining

Overtraining can lead to fatigue, decreased performance, and increased risk of injury. Adequate rest and recovery help prevent overtraining by allowing the body to recover from the stress of exercise and adapt to the training stimulus.

Immune Function

Intense exercise can temporarily suppress the immune system, increasing the risk of illness. Rest and recovery support immune function, helping to reduce the risk of infections and illnesses that can interfere with training.

Mental and Emotional Well-Being

Rest and recovery are essential for mental and emotional well-being. They allow for relaxation, stress reduction, and mental recovery, which are crucial for maintaining motivation and focus during training.

Incorporating rest and recovery into your training program is essential for optimizing VO₂ max and overall performance. This includes scheduling rest days, getting adequate sleep, practicing active recovery (such as light exercise or stretching), and listening to your body's signals to avoid overtraining. Balancing training with rest and recovery allows for better adaptation to training stimuli, leading to improved performance over time.

Tracking and Monitoring Progress

Monitoring V02 Progress

Monitoring your progress when training to improve VO₂ max is essential for several reasons:

  1. Track improvements: Monitoring allows you to track your VO₂ max over time to see if your training program is effective. It can help you identify trends and determine if adjustments are needed to continue improving.

  2. Adjust training intensity: By monitoring your progress, you can adjust the intensity of your training plan to ensure it is challenging enough to improve VO₂ max, but not so intense that it leads to overtraining or injury. The guidance of a certified personal trainer is recommended.

  3. Motivation: Tracking progress can be motivating and rewarding. Seeing improvements in your VO₂ max can help you stay motivated and committed to your training program.

  4. Identify plateaus: Monitoring can help you identify if you have reached a plateau in your training. Plateaus are common in fitness progress, and they may indicate a need to change your training program or intensity to continue improving.

  5. Prevent overtraining: Monitoring your progress can help you identify signs of overtraining, such as declining performance or excessive fatigue. This allows you to adjust your training volume or intensity to prevent overtraining and injury.

  6. Optimize recovery: Monitoring can help you track your recovery patterns and adjust your rest and recovery strategies as needed to optimize recovery and performance.

Overall, monitoring your progress when training to improve VO₂ max is essential for optimizing your training program, staying motivated, and achieving your fitness goals while also enhancing heart health.


Achieving optimal VO₂ max requires a multifaceted approach that includes regular aerobic exercise, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), strength training, proper nutrition, hydration, rest, and recovery. Monitoring progress and adjusting your training program accordingly is also crucial for continued improvement.

By incorporating these strategies into your fitness routine, you can enhance your VO₂ max, improve your endurance, and reach new levels of fitness and performance.

Whether you’re lifting weights, training for a triathlon, skateboarding, riding motocross, or playing football, baseball, or hockey, the ability to quickly and adequately restore muscle glycogen and electrolytes simply cannot be done with food alone.

HyperAde is a non-stimulant electrolyte glycogen supplement that quickly replenishes muscle glycogen and electrolytes that are depleted from intense bursts of energy. It includes 25g of fast-digesting carbs from Cluster Dextrin, a superior carbohydrate that delivers smooth, constant energy and replenishes muscle glycogen storage without spiking blood sugar levels.

If you want to get the most out of your VO₂ max training, make sure you have Hyperade in your shaker cup every time you train!